world news The terrible speed the Grenfell fire spread


Sequence of graphics showing how fire engulfed Grenfell Tower between 01:14 and 04:44 on 14 June 2017

Seventy-two individuals died on account of an enormous hearth that engulfed Grenfell Tower – a 27-storey West London residential tower block. This week professional witnesses at an inquiry into the blaze detailed how the hearth ripped by way of the constructing, minute by minute, one yr in the past.

Fireplace begins on fourth flooring, spreads in minutes

Graphics showing how the fire spread from one flat to 20 flats between 01:14 and 01:26

00:54 BST

The primary name was made to emergency companies to report a hearth on flooring 4 of Grenfell Tower simply earlier than 01:00 on 14 June 2017.

The person who lived in flat 16, Behailu Kebede, told the operator: “Quick, quick, quick. It’s burning.”

He described how he was woken by a smoke alarm and had seen smoke in his kitchen.

4 hearth engines had been despatched to the scene, the primary arriving at 00:59.

The fire had begun “in or around” a tall Hotpoint fridge-freezer, according to a provisional report by Dr Niamh Nic Daéid, director of the Leverhulme Research Centre for Forensic Science at Dundee University.


A couple of minutes later, the hearth may very well be seen within the flat from exterior the constructing. It had unfold from the kitchen window to the outside and witnesses started seeing burning materials falling to the bottom.

Series of images of the fire at Grenfell Tower between 01:08 and 01:26

Round this time, Tiago Alves, then aged 20, ran down the steps from the 13th flooring together with his youthful sister Ines.

“My dad stayed upstairs and he was knocking on the neighbours’ doors,” he told the Guardian in the aftermath of the fire.

CCTV confirmed their father, Miguel, leaving the constructing a couple of minutes later together with different residents – presumably fellow occupants of the 13th flooring.


The primary hearth crew entered the flat, reaching the kitchen by 01:14.

Firefighter Daniel Brown described seeing an “remoted curtain of flame from about 2-3ft within the air to the ceiling”.

Thermal photos captured by the hearth crew appeared to point out “sizzling hearth gases and flames had unfold throughout the window house”.

Barefoot and clutching his telephone, the flat’s tenant, Mr Kebede, left the constructing and watched in horror as the hearth unfold up the tower.

His cell phone photos present an orange glow of flames across the kitchen window, and later a hearth burning extra intensely within the space of the window filler panel and extractor fan.

Graphic showing the layout of flat 16 and annotated image of the aftermath of the fire


The blaze was transferring up the constructing’s east facet by this time and the hearth service made its first request for a high-reach aerial equipment.

One minute later, the hearth had unfold to the fifth flooring above. Fireplace crews started utilizing exterior hoses to attempt to extinguish the flames.

Additional burning particles may very well be seen dropping from the constructing.

These early stages of the fire saw “rapid vertical fire” and “horizontal fire” spread up and across the building, according to fire safety engineer Dr Barbara Lane.


Inside an extra six minutes, the hearth had reached the 11th flooring. One minute later, the hearth had reached flooring 13.

A resident of flat 195 on the 22nd flooring known as emergency companies to explain smelling smoke, however was suggested to “keep inside and hold your door and home windows shut”.

CCTV confirmed various individuals leaving from the seventh flooring.

A couple of minutes later, somebody on the 14th flooring stated individuals may now not exit by way of the foyer as a result of it was crammed with smoke.


Cell phone movies present the blaze reaching the highest flooring on the east facet of Grenfell Tower by about 01:26, lower than 30 minutes after firefighters had arrived.

In roughly 12 minutes, it had unfold up 19 storeys on the skin of the constructing.

A resident of flat 95 on the 12th flooring known as 999 to report that the hearth had reached her neighbour’s flat. The flames had been “coming by way of the ground”, she stated.

Graphic showing how the fire spread on two fronts - along the east and north sides of the building

The fireplace service was nonetheless telling residents to “keep put” at this level – recommendation that lasted almost two hours.

Such “keep put” security recommendation is commonly given to individuals residing in purpose-built blocks of flats. It’s designed to cease residents unaffected by hearth from unnecessarily evacuating the constructing and blocking the stairways.

Nevertheless, it assumes a constructing’s design will comprise a hearth in a single flat for so long as it takes hearth crews to carry it underneath management.

Dr Barbara Lane’s report discovered that this coverage had “successfully failed” barely half an hour after the hearth began, given the distinctive circumstances on the tower block.

There was an “early want for complete evacuation of Grenfell Tower”, she stated.

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Main incident declared

Graphics showing how the fire spread from 20 flats to 34 flats between 01:36 and 02:10


The variety of 999 calls to emergency companies elevated as the hearth reached the highest of the constructing.

In desperation, some residents had headed upwards and had been looking for refuge in flats of associates and neighbours on the higher flooring. Smoke was coming from “in every single place”, one stated.

London Fireplace Brigade elevated their request for automobiles with pumps to 20 at this level. Two minutes later, crews requested for 25 pumps.

Folks on the third, 11th, 20th, 22nd, 23rd went on to make emergency calls to explain flames or smoke reaching their flats.


The fireplace continued to advance on two fronts – alongside the jap facet of the constructing and to the north. A complete of 144 individuals had evacuated the constructing by this level, however 149 remained inside.

The fireplace service acquired a name from flat 205 on the 23rd flooring, the place flames “simply blew” into the kitchen.

The occupants of flat 95 on the 12th flooring additionally described a hearth within the neighbouring flat, on the touchdown and close to the carry, in addition to under and across the flat’s home windows. They had been suggested to go away.

Folks on the 10th, 12th, 14th and 22nd flooring additionally known as 999 round this time and described being trapped in smoke-filled flats. Some stated they had been going to try to escape.

Series of images of the fire at Grenfell Tower between 01:30 and 02:30


In addition to 26 flats ablaze externally, no less than 4 flats had been on hearth inside by this time, based on the report by Dr Barbara Lane.

The variety of individuals escaping the constructing slowed, nonetheless. There was a period, between about 01:50 and 02:06 when no-one left, according to the report by Professor José L. Torero.

This was the purpose when communal lobbies and stairwells within the center and high of the constructing grew to become, or appeared to have turn into, impassable.

“Thick smoke with low to zero visibility is described as filling the stair,” stated Dr Barbara Lane.


London Fireplace Brigade declared a “main incident” simply after 02:00. They’d requested 40 pumps by this level.

Folks began leaving the constructing once more, however at a lowered price. The rationale for this isn’t clear, Prof Jose Torero stated in his report, nonetheless, it corresponded with the purpose when the hearth reached the centre of the constructing’s east facet and the north facet, creating “untenable” situations.

The fireplace unfold throughout the north facet of the constructing a couple of minutes later and fires had been raging inside various flats.

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Keep-put recommendation modified

Graphics showing how the fire spread from 53 flats to 61 flats between 02:22 to 02:53


The variety of inside fires elevated as the hearth unfold throughout the outside of the constructing and by 02:25, the hearth had unfold to the south facet of the constructing. 5 minutes after that, at 02:30, the entire of the east of the constructing was on hearth, Met Police information present.


The incident commander modified the coverage recommending residents keep within the constructing at this level and folks had been suggested to go away. By this time, the east, north and south sides of the constructing had been in flames.

Earlier than the stay-put recommendation was modified, 187 occupants had left the constructing – independently or with firefighter help. There have been nonetheless 107 individuals within the constructing, of which 36 ultimately obtained out.

Chart showing the number of people evacuating from Grenfell Tower falling as time progressed

Folks contained in the constructing described lobbies as “extremely sizzling” or “boiling sizzling” in addition to thick with smoke presently, Dr Barbara Lane stated.

“This smoke successfully created a barrier to residents on any stage and so impacted on their skill and/or willingness to maneuver from their flats down the stair to a spot of security,” she added.

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North of constructing absolutely ablaze

Graphics showing how the fire spread from 70 flats to 92 flats between 03:08 and 03:43


Some 73 flats had been ablaze externally by 03:21 and two minutes later, the northern facet of the constructing was absolutely alight.

By 03:39, London Fireplace Brigade had stopped sending crews above the 4th flooring.

Series of images of the fire at Grenfell Tower between 03:08 and 03:44

The fireplace continued to unfold in direction of the south-west nook of the constructing, reaching it by 03:56. No-one escaped from above the 12th flooring after 03:55.

Simply earlier than 04:00, 81 individuals had been left within the constructing.

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Entire constructing on hearth

Graphics showing how the fire spread from 98 flats to 106 flats between 04:03 and 04:44


The fireplace unfold laterally across the constructing to the north and south, and simply after 04:00 it had reached all sides.

The flames had unfold in numerous instructions and converged on stage 23 close to the south-west nook of the constructing, absolutely enveloping the constructing’s perimeter.


Fireplace may very well be seen spreading down the constructing on the west facet and it was absolutely engulfed simply earlier than 05:00. Inside fires continued to rage.

Series of images of the fire at Grenfell Tower between 04:20 and 05:16


Some 70 individuals had not evacuated the constructing at this stage.


The incident commander concluded that there was “now not any saveable life within the constructing” simply earlier than 20:00. Inside fires may nonetheless be seen on the north and west sides of the constructing at 21:50.

01:14 (15 June)

The blaze didn’t burn itself out till 01:14 BST on Thursday 15 June – 24 hours later – having destroyed 151 properties, each within the tower and surrounding areas.

A total of 72 people lost their lives as a result of the fire.

They embody six members of the Choucair Household and 5 members of the Hashim Household, who lived on the 22nd flooring. 5 members of the El-Wahabi household died on the 21st flooring.

Six-month outdated child Leena Belkadi died in her mom’s arms as she tried to flee and child Logan Gomes was stillborn in hospital the morning after the hearth.

Maria Del Pilar Burton, who suffered from severe long-term well being points, died in hospital in January 2018.

A complete of 65 individuals had been rescued from the constructing by firefighters.

In an announcement to the inquiry, London Fireplace Brigade stated Grenfell Tower was the most important single rescue operation in England since World Struggle II.

It was “by far probably the most difficult incident” the service had skilled “in residing reminiscence”, it stated.

The Fireplace Brigades Union has requested the inquiry to think about whether or not firefighters had been put in an “inconceivable state of affairs” when battling the blaze.

Observe: All timings as reported to the Grenfell Tower Inquiry.

Written and produced by Lucy Rodgers. Designed by Gerry Fletcher, Zoe Bartholomew, Mark Bryson and Sumi Senthinathan.

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